TABLE 2.

Factors to Consider When Implementing A Resource and Strategies for Resource Uptake and Use

What Factors Are Associated With Resource Uptake and Use?What Strategies Could Improve Uptake and Use?

Sufficient training and capacity-building for users19,20,23,24,2527

  • Training and technical assistance are provided to prepare individuals to use the resource with fidelity.

  • Training is appropriate for the audience, of sufficient duration, and integrated with existing training processes and systems.

  • Supportive supervision is provided to all members of the team during resource use.

  • Offer training tailored for multidisciplinary staff.

  • Provide ongoing training and technical assistance to support resource use.

  • Create systems for supportive supervision.

  • Leverage existing training systems, when possible, to introduce the resource and support its use.

User buy-in19,20,22,23,26

  • Users are aware of the resource and motivated to use it.

  • Users believe that the resource is important, it can improve their work, and it addresses a perceived need.

  • Identify and leverage champions who support the resource.

  • Articulate the rationale for using the resource, including why change is needed.

  • Provide appropriate incentives for resource use.

  • Consult with health care workers on resource implementation.

Effective messaging and communication22,25

  • There are effective systems and processes to support communication about resource implementation to users.

  • The necessary systems are in place to communicate with individuals involved in implementation, including program staff.

  • There are clear and consistent messages about the resource, its purpose, its contents, and the implementation process.

  • Craft clear messaging about the resource.

  • Consider tailoring messaging to different audiences (e.g., managers and program staff).

  • Leverage or strengthen communication systems.

  • Establish or leverage existing communication processes with health care workers.

Sufficient human resources20,23,25,26

  • There are enough people with the time, training, and expertise to use the resource as intended.

  • Ensure sufficient human resources are dedicated to resource implementation.

  • Plan for staff attrition during implementation.

  • Evaluate the acceptability of a new resource among staff.

Funding/financial support19,2224,26,28

  • There are dedicated funds and financial means, from private and/or public sources, to support resource implementation, including resource procurement, training, monitoring and evaluation, and managing unexpected delays or issues.

  • Evaluate whether there are sufficient dedicated funds to support sustained resource implementation.

  • Consider multiple sources of financial support, including local and federal governments, donor, and non-health-related sectors.

  • Provide funding to build organizational capacity before implementation.

  • Fund critical elements of implementation, including training, supervision, monitoring and evaluation, data infrastructure, and responding to unexpected problems.

Sufficient equipment, supplies, and infrastructure29

  • There is enough appropriate and high-quality equipment, supplies, and other physical infrastructure to implement the resource as intended.

  • Ensure that there is sufficient funding to support necessary equipment and supplies to use the resource.

  • Invest in and/or leverage national infrastructure, including transportation and information technology.

Positive team culture19

  • There is mutual respect across implementing team members.

  • Team members feel part of and supported by their organization.

  • Prioritize understanding team culture when planning for resource implementation.

  • Identify opportunities to strengthen or build a positive team culture.

  • Include nonclinical staff when building a team culture.

Leadership support19,23

  • Relevant leaders of the organization, facility, and/or district are dedicated to and supportive of implementation of the resource.

  • Create an implementation sustainability plan with decision-makers.

  • Establish organizational leadership’s commitment to successful implementation of the resource.

Local and national data systems24,26

  • Data are available for use and of high quality.

  • Data are collected and reported regularly and completely.

  • Data relevant for successful resource implementation are easily understood by resource implementers.

  • Provide training and capacity-building in data collection and use to resource implementers.

  • Develop tools to support data use.

  • Develop systems for data review and quality assurance.

  • Leverage or strengthen national data systems.

Political commitment and policy alignment22,29

  • Government bodies and/or government personnel engage in intentional and sustained action to support resource implementation. This may include supporting or creating legislation, regulations, or rules that promote resource use.

  • There is buy-in from national, subnational, and local health authorities for resource use. This may involve expressing support for resource use or addressing barriers.

  • Identify champions at various levels of government to support uptake and use of the resource.

  • Ensure implementation of the resource aligns with laws, regulations, and policies at all levels of government.

  • Build relationships with political officials to promote strong government buy-in for work and legislation supporting resource use.

  • Ask governmental officials to communicate about the resource to help facilitate resource use.

Strategic partnerships22,26

  • There are relationships between 2 or more organizations or groups to share resources, information, or personnel to achieve a shared goal of supporting resource use.

  • Strategic partnerships involving actors from the public or private sector, community representatives, and other stakeholders support use of the resource.

  • Identify prospective partner organizations or groups that share a common purpose related to the goals of the resource.

  • Understand and leverage complementary skills, resources, and personnel across partnerships.