Types of Data Used for Indicators Monitoring Child Health and Well-Being

Data CollectionReporting Cycle; Population MeasuredOriginal SourceStrengthsLimitationsLink to Core Indicators and SDGs
CRVSAnnual; National populationNational administrative records for births, deaths, and marriagesIf registration is complete and the system functions efficiently, the data can be used to produce comparable country level estimates that are accurate and timely.Costly to set up and maintain; in the absence of good coverage and completeness of CRVS data, may not cover the whole population or it could be incomplete.Cause of death; inputs into under-5 mortality (3.2.1), mortality in children 5 to 9 years, birth registration (16.9)
Population-based surveys3 to 5 years; National/subnationalNational health surveys, DHS, MICS, censuses, malaria program surveysCollect data that can't be obtained through other methods; provide population-based measures of coverage and health status; allows for equity analyses and can be disaggregated by a variety of different characteristics to describe the population of interest.Conducted in-person in most LMICs, making them technically complex, expensive, and time consuming; reliance on respondents' self-report, which can add biases to the results; results reflect the survey reporting period with a 2-to-3-year time lag, so are not necessarily reflective of a country's current situation.Cause of death; inputs into under-5 mortality (3.2.1), mortality in children 5 to 9 years; service coverage indicators: care seeking for acute respiratory infection and fever; diarrhea treatment; immunization (SDG 3.1); ECDI2030; use of insecticide-treated bed nets; maltreatment, harsh punishment by caregiver; vitamin A supplementation
Routine health information systemsMonthly; Facility or service specificHMIS including DHIS2 and other platformsData are continuously available for program monitoring and provide a finer level of detail on the performance of specific health services within health facilities.Data are only representative of the services provided through a health facility and only for those who seek care, leading to under-reported or biased coverage data. Many systems do not include services from the private sector or community providers. To create CHAT technical advisory group recommended indicators, these data would need to be used with another data source for a population-based denominator.Administrative records systems (e.g., national health accounts), service records systems (e.g., immunizations administered, HMIS), and individual records systems (e.g., patient medical records), captured in an HMIS
Disease/condition registries, death auditsMonthly, annual; Facility, nationalDisease/conditions specific registries, clearinghouses, death/disease auditsCaptures diseases/conditions that are rarely reported; provides additional sources of data for rare conditions or uncommon events.If facility based, may reflect only those seeking care in a facility; may not be representative of total population.Registries (cancer, birth defects), surveillance systems; thalassemia prevalence, neural tube defect prevalence new HIV infections, TB incidence
  • Abbreviations: ARI, acute respiratory infection; CHAT, Child Health Accountability Tracking; CRVS; civil registration and vital statistics; DHS, Demographic and Health Survey; ECDI2030, Early Childhood Development Index 2030; HMIS, health management information system; LMICs, low- and middle-income countries; MICS, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey; SDG, Sustainable Development Goal.