TABLE 2 Transition Types and Implications for Monitoring and Evaluation
Transition Type
Gavi in Bosnia-HerzegovinaFP in Latin AmericaAvahan in India
Transition DescriptionFrom 2002 to 2011, Gavi supported the government of BiH to introduce the Hepatitis B and Hib vaccines, which were delivered through the government health system. BiH passed Gavi’s GNI per capita threshold in 2007, making it ineligible for new support, while Gavi fulfilled existing multiyear commitments. The government of BiH assumed funding and planning responsibilities from Gavi when the funding ended, which was before Gavi developed a graduation policy.Through USAID, the USG supported FP activities in LAC through financial and technical assistance beginning in the 1960s. In the mid-2000s, due to shifting donor priorities and improving FP indicators, countries were systematically “graduated” from FP assistance. Transition plans, typically spanning 2–5 years, were developed where funding and procurement was transitioned to local in-country organizations.2 In 2005, the BMGF committed US$350 million to address the spread of HIV/AIDS in India, focusing on prevention for high-risk populations. The programs, in 6 states, offered services through cascading contracts with international and local NGOs. A planned and phased program transition took place between 2009 and 2012.
Transition Domain
 Service deliveryX
Sustaining a supportive policy environmentXXX
Creating financial sustainabilityXXX
Developing local capacityXXX
Communicating among all stakeholdersXX
Aligning programsX
  • Abbreviations: BiH, Bosnia-Herzegovina; BMGF, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; FP, family planning; GNI, gross national income; Hib, Haemophilus influenzae type B; LAC, Latin America and the Caribbean; M&E, monitoring and evaluation; USAID, US Agency for International Development; USG, United States Government.