TABLE 7 Gaps Between the Poorest and Richest Quintiles (Poor Minus Rich) at Initial and Latest Surveya and Gap Changes, by Reproductive Health Indicator, 46 Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Reproductive Health IndicatorGap at Initial SurveyGap at Latest SurveyGap Reduction% Improvement
% with no antenatal care30.719.611.136.1
% not told of pregnancy complications27.920.97.025.1
% not receiving iron or syrup31.724.37.423.2
% not receiving tetanus21.914.87.132.3
% not delivering in health facility48.349.1(0.7)(1.6)
% lacking skilled attendant at birth51.446.84.68.9
% with distance problem52.635.517.132.5
Perinatal mortality14.49.64.833.1
Infant mortality rate37.
Under-5 mortality rate66.846.820.030.0
Total fertility rate2.
Wanted fertility rate2.
Want to limit childbearing(7.1)(2.5)4.664.4
Ideal no. of children1.381.280.107.4
Ideal no. of children at ages 20–
Unmet need for family planning7.
Unmet need for limiting3.
Unmet need for spacing4.14.2(0.1)(1.4)
  • a Survey years varied by country, ranging from 1990 in the initial surveys to 2013 in the latest surveys.

  • Note: Data in the last 2 columns were calculated with more decimals than shown and can reflect rounding.