Demographic, Viral Load, and Alcohol Risk-Level Characteristics Among Justice-Involved People Living With HIV in Zambia


No. (%)


Sex and age
 Male40 (80)
 Female10 (20)
 Age, median (range), years34.1 (20–54)
Highest education level completed
 No education1 (2)
 Primary school27 (54)
 Secondary school21 (42)
 Higher than secondary school1 (2)
Enrollment site
 Lusaka Central Correctional Facility33 (66)
 Kabwe Correctional Complex14 (28)
 Mwembeshi Correctional Facility3 (6)
History of prior incarceration7 (14)
Reason for release
 Sentence completed46 (92)
 Paroled3 (6)
 Released from court (i.e., remandee)1 (2)
Viral load status change (from pre- to post-release)a
 Unchanged “undetectable” or “suppressed” (favorable) status19 (38)
 Unchanged “uncontrolled” (unfavorable) status7 (14)
 Viral load status improved6 (12)
 Viral load status deteriorated11 (22)
 Viral load status unknown (i.e., LTFU)7 (14)
Post-release alcohol use (for participants who completed a post-release survey, n=27)
Risk level for alcohol use disorderb
 Low risk21 (78)
 Hazardous or harmful alcohol use6 (22)
 Moderate-to-severe alcohol use1 (4)
  • Abbreviations: AUD, alcohol use disorder; AUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; LTFU, lost to follow-up; WHO, World Health Organization.

  • a HIV viral load status categories include: undetectable (<20 copies/ml); suppressed (20–999 copies/ml); uncontrolled (≥1,000 copies/ml).

  • b Risk level for AUD determined from the WHO AUDIT tool with the following scores (on scale from 0 to 40) for each category: low risk (1–7); hazardous or harmful (8–14); moderate-to-severe (≥15).