Summary of Emergent Themes From Participant Interviews on Perceived Challenges to Handwashing With Soap Interventions Targeting Older Children

Program Cycle StageTheme
Funding acquisitionLack of prioritization
Funding inconsistency
DesignInsufficient formative research
Demand on resources
Unengaging intervention content
Non-enabling physical environments
DeliveryAvailability of skilled implementers
Reaching out-of-school children
Community mistrust
Lack of coordination
EvaluationLack of evaluation rigor
Failure to assign older children’s handwashing as a primary outcome in evaluations of hygiene interventions