Potential Areas of Integration Among Vaccine-Preventable Disease Surveillance Support Functionsa

Surveillance Support FunctionsPotential Areas for Integration
GovernanceStandards and guidelines development, policy, laws/mandates, roles and responsibilities (including for private sector), and funding
Program managementBudget creation, resource mobilization, financial management, sustainability, infrastructure/equipment management, human resources, and external surveillance assessments and reviews
Workforce capacityTraining/capacity building at all levels; staff for core functions including case detection, notification, investigation, reporting, and response; and epidemic preparedness
LaboratorySpecimen collection kits, reagents, and supplies; equipment; physical space; training; personnel; expansion and diversification of regional and global networks; shared procurement processes; and quality management systems
Field logistics and communicationAirtime and Internet for notification and reporting, specimen collection, and transport; and feedback of results
SupervisionSupportive supervisory visits, workplans, and checklists
Data management and useInformation system development; and data harmonization, implementation, and use for performance improvement
CoordinationLinking surveillance program to relevant stakeholders (e.g., EPI) for data review, dissemination, and use; improvement planning; surveillance strengthening as core function of International Health Regulations implementation framework, including rapid response teams and emergency operations centers
  • Abbreviation: EPI, Expanded Program on Immunization.

  • a From the World Health Organization Global Strategy on Comprehensive Vaccine-Preventable Disease Surveillance.2