TABLE 2.

Implementation Strategies to Foster Data Quality and Use in AHI-Partner Projects

Ethiopia DUP was designed to scaffold onto the government's information revolution roadmap through leadership engagement, mentored and team-based capacity building, financial incentives, and investments in the eHealth architecture
ActorActionAction Target and JustificationTemporalityDoseImplementation Outcome
Study staffLeadership engagementWork with MOH leadership at district, province, and national levels to define and bolster governance structures and define standards and responsibilitiesBaseline and annually thereafterFormal dissemination meetings at each level (1–2 hours)Acceptability, sustainability
Mentored supervisionLocal universities provide individual HIS capacity building to health worker-led PMTs in target regions through the CBMPAt a minimum, quarterly mentored supervisionSupervision visits of PMTs (2–3 hours)Adoption
Investments in data use eHealth architectureFinancial support to upgrade technology for HIS as well as related learning platforms linked to the Connected Woreda strategyInvestments were made at the start of DUP to upgrade technologies Penetration, sustainability
Study staff, facility staffPMTs at health facility levelPMTs meet to review data, perform root cause analysis, LQAS, and define tailored action strategies for improvementMonthlyMeetings monthly (2–3 hours)Appropriateness, penetration
Ghana's CHPS+ project approach provided investments into learning platforms and mentoring partnerships and reinforced data collection modalities (e-Tracker/Data dashboard)
ActorActionAction Target and JustificationTemporalityDoseImplementation Outcome
Study staff, university partnersLinked systems learning districts and university-based learning processInnovative approach to transfer system strengthening strategies from 4 districts to larger-scale implementation in additional regions (peer learning with financial incentives)Peer learning introduced at baseline and followed up once at 6 monthsTwo trainings at baseline and 6 months for each systems learning districtAdoption, appropriateness
Study staffMentoring supportPeer learning operations prioritized including decision making and leadershipAt minimum quarterlyMentoring 4 times per year (1–2 hours)Adoption
Technologies to reinforce data collection and use (e-Tracker)Data capture, analysis, and use will be prioritized through the use and expansion of the e-TrackerStart-up and annual refresher trainings plus monthly use on-the-jobTraining/refresher course (3 hours)Adoption, penetration, sustainability
Training to address skill gaps among health care teamTraining to disseminate simple, low-cost, and rapid turnaround tools for impact monitoring to inform policy and practical decision makingCompleted at baseline2–3 hoursAcceptability, fidelity
Mozambique IDEAs program was designed to adapt and expand a district-based audit and feedback approach and enhance capacity in research and targeted implementation studies linked to MNCH
ActorActionAction Target and JustificationTemporalityDoseImplementation Outcome
Mozambique NIHService provision assessments and data quality auditsPeriodic service readiness and data quality assessments of a rotating sample of randomly selected facilities in the study areaConducted quarterly1–2 days for each activityFidelity, penetration
Study staff, MOH managersDistrict performance review and enhancement meetingsAdaptation and expansion of the district performance and enhancement meetings into an iterative learning approachConducted twice annually4–5 hoursAppropriateness, penetration
Mentored supervisionBuild and support implementation research, through mentoring visits that review action plans and use of facility support grantsQuarterly at a subsample of sites2–3 hoursAdoption, implementation cost
  • Abbreviations: AHI, African Health Initiative; CBMP, capacity building and mentorship program; DUP, Data Use Partnership; HIS, health information system; IDEAs, Integrated District Evidence-to-Action program to improve maternal, newborn, and child health; LQAS, lot quality assurance sampling; MOH, Ministry of Health; PMT, performance-monitoring team.