TABLE 3.

Observations of Intrapartum Evidence-Based Practices, Neonatal Care Practices, and Respectful Maternity Care in the Labor Room in the Study Medical Schools in India

No. (%)95% CI
Intrapartum care (N=135)
First stage of labor
Recommended practices
    Partograph used along with the progress of labor53 (39.3)30.9, 48.0
    Women's mobility encouraged during labor94 (69.6)61.7, 77.2
    Offering alternate/upright birthing positions to laboring women0 (0)0
    Frequency of PV examination (as per records)
        0–364 (47.5)38.7, 56.1
        4–770 (51.9)43.1, 60.5
        8–111 (0.7)0.0, 4.0
    A birth companion was allowed94 (69.6)61.7, 77.2
    Fetal heart rate measured135 (100)97.3, 100
Frequency of fetal heart rate monitoring
    Hourly111 (82.2)74.7, 88.2
    Half-hourly24 (17.8)11.7, 25.2
Not-recommended practices
    Pubic shaving done54 (40.0)31.6, 48.7
    Enema given65 (48.1)39.4, 56.9
    Augmentation with intravenous oxytocin before confirming delay in labor87 (64.4)55.7, 72.4
Second stage of labor (N=120)
Recommended practices
    Alternate birthing positions were used16 (13.3)7.8, 20.7
Not-recommended practices
    Fundal pressure given61 (50.8)41.5, 60.1
    Episiotomy done70 (58.3)48.9, 67.3
Third stage of labor (N=120)
Recommended practice
    Uterotonics being given on time109 (90.8)84.1, 95.3
Neonatal care
Recommended practices
    Baby was wrapped immediately58 (48.3)39.1, 57.6
    Skin-to-skin contact of the child with mother (baby kept on mother's stomach immediately after birth)41 (34.2)25.7, 43.3
    Delayed cord clamping53 (44.2)35.1, 53.5
    Breastfeeding initiated within one hour of delivery18 (15.0)9.1, 22.7
Not-recommended practices
    Suctioning of throat and nose of newborn done41 (34.2)25.7, 43.3
Respectful maternity care
    PV examination (N=135)
    Verbal consent was taken from the client before PV examination86 (63.7)54.9, 71.8
    Curtains were drawn during PV examination/separate room for PV43 (31.8)24.1, 40.4
    Client treated with concern and empathy (N=120)85 (70.8)62.7, 78.9
    Clients helped to move around during labor92 (76.6)69.1, 84.2
Disrespectful maternity care
    Clients shouted at18 (15.0)9.1, 22.7
    Clients taunted22 (18.3)11.8, 26.4
    Clients slapped2 (1.6)0.2, 5.8
  • Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; PV, per vaginal.