TABLE 2.

Strategies and Interventions by Phase and Level of Implementation (Activities Conducted by Program Unless Otherwise Noted)

Phase 1 (2006–2012)Phase 2 (2012–2015)Phase 3 (2015–2019)
Increase and sustain availability of high-quality MRH services
RHMT/CHMTs-Reviewed and approved all activities and materials (e.g., job aids, campaign content)
-Participated in supportive supervision and mentorship visits to facilities
-Participated in CME workshops
The R/CHMTs were involved in all aspects of facility upgrades and planning provider training-Improved FP commodities stock management and provided a buffer stock of all commodities in case of stock-outs
-Provided training of trainers in FP
-Formed a regional mentorship team
-Provided training and technical support to improve quality of MRH data; use data for decision making, planning and budgeting; and conduct MPDSR
-Supported to train district-based biomedical technicians to repair medical equipment
-Participated in research studies (e.g., birth companionship, EmONC, and refugee communities)
-Worked toward including additional MRH service delivery costs identified through the Program into budgets (e.g., cost of providing routine onsite supervision and mentorships visits)
Hospitals(N=3)
-Provided routine supportive supervision and mentorship
-Conducted routine clinical audits
-Participated in CME workshops
-Provided some EmONC equipment, supplies, and medicationsNot applicable
-Made minor renovations as needed
-Provided training and supported health providers to deliver high-quality CEmONC
-Built staff houses for maternity staff
-Provided training and supported health providers to deliver high-quality: CEmONC, LARC, PMs, and CPAC
-Installed technical infrastructure and provided training in using e-learning system
-Linked to toll-free closed user group mobile phone network for emergency calls and teleconferences
-Provided training and supported health providers to deliver high-quality CEmONC, LARC, PMs and CPAC, HBB,a respectful maternity care
-Provided training on improving quality of MRH data and using data for decision making, budgeting, and planning
-Introduced birth companionship in 1 hospital
Health centers(N=6)
-Constructed 6 operating theaters and renovated maternity wards as needed
-Provided EmONC equipment, supplies, and medications
-Provided training and supported non-doctors to provide obstetric surgery and nurse-midwives/clinical officers to provide anesthesia
-Provided monthly supportive supervision and mentorship visits
-Conducted monthly clinical audits
-Provided CME workshops as needed (e.g., on assisted vaginal delivery, infection prevention)
(N=12)
-Constructed operating theaters in 5 additional health centers and renovated maternity wards as needed; provided technical assistance on upgrade of 1 additional health center
-Provided EmONC & FP equipment, supplies, and medications
-Provided training and supported health providers in CEmONC, SBA, LARC, PMs, and CPAC
-Provided quarterly supportive supervision and mentorship visits
-Conducted quarterly clinical audits
-Provided CME workshops as needed
-Linked to toll-free closed user group mobile phone network for emergency calls and teleconferences
-Installed technical infrastructure and provided training in use of e-learning system
-With a focus on improving quality of EmONC, introduced weekly teleconferences, emergency call system, and e-learning platform
-Provided training and support to use COPE
-Provided technical support for FP service days
(N=13)
-Provided training and supported health providers in CEmONC, SBA, LARC, PMs, CPAC, use of simulations with mannequins to regularly refresh skills, respectful maternity care.
-Provided quarterly supportive supervision and mentorship visits
-Conducted quarterly clinical audits
-Provided CME workshops as needed
-Continued weekly teleconferences, emergency call system, and e-learning platform
-Introduced HBB and KMCb
-Provided training and support to use COPEc
-Provided technical support for FP service days
-Provided training to improve quality of MRH data and how to use data for decision making, budgeting, and planning
-During critical shortages, provided essential EmONC equipment, supplies, and medications
-Introduced birth companionship in 8 health centers
DispensariesNot applicableNot applicable(N=67)
-Renovated 67 dispensaries
-Provided equipment, supplies, and medications for some BEmONC, SBA, LARC, and CPAC
-Provided training for health providers in BEmONC and skilled birth attendance (N=18)
-LARC (N=67); and CPAC (N=35)
-Provided monthly supportive supervision and mentorship visits, in partnership with closest health center in-charge
-Provided training and support to use COPE
-Provided CME workshops as needed
-Provided technical support for FP service days
Improve and sustain access to MRH services
RHMT/CHMTsNot applicableParticipated in development and implementation of referral guidelines
HospitalsNot applicableParticipated in development and implementation of referral guidelines
Health centersNot applicableDeveloped and implemented referral guidelines in partnership with catchment area around 1 health centerDeveloped and implemented referral guidelines in partnership with catchment areas around 3 health centers
DispensariesNot applicableDeveloped referral guidelines in partnership with catchment areas around 5 dispensariesDeveloped referral guidelines in partnership with catchment areas around 18 dispensaries
-Provided technical support for FP outreach
-Provided technical support for FP weeks
CommunitiesNot applicable-In partnership with health center and dispensaries in catchment area: developed referral guidelines; started emergency scheme funds; organized local transport providers to provide care to women during obstetric emergencies
-Provided technical support for FP weeks
-Integrated FP service delivery with other community events (e.g., immunization mobile teams)
Create and sustain demand for MRH services
RHMT/CHMTsNot applicable-Participated in the design and development of all multimedia communication campaigns to increase demand and utilization of services
-Involved in the selection of 139 community members who were trained by the program as CHWs
-Teamed up with program staff in conducting routine supportive supervision to CHWs
HospitalsNot applicableParticipated in campaigns
Health centersNot applicable-Participated in campaigns
-Provided capacity building and support to facility in-charges to supervise CHWs
-Provided training to facilities to facilitate the process of community members being led in “walk throughs” to learn about services provided
DispensariesNot applicable-Participated in campaigns
-Provided capacity building and support to facility in-charges to supervise CHWs
CommunitiesNot applicable-Exposed to 2 multimedia campaigns focusing on importance of facility delivery, birth preparedness, and FP-Exposed to 1 multimedia campaign focusing on importance of facility delivery, birth preparedness, and birth companionship
-Promoted the use of birth companions during facility deliveries
-Supported CHWs to promote and educate women and communities on MRH
-Provided support to CHWs to conduct outreach events
-Provided support to cultural troops
-Facilitated the collection of testimonies from satisfied clients
-Worked with 2 CBOs to provide reproductive health education for adolescents in schools
  • Abbreviations: BEmONC, basic emergency obstetric and newborn care; CBOs, community-based organizations; CEmONC, comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn care; CHMT, council health management teams; CHWs, community health workers; CME, continuing medical education; COPE, client-oriented, provider-efficient; CPAC, comprehensive postabortion care; EmONC, emergency obstetric and newborn care; FP, family planning; HBB, helping babies breathe; KMC, kangaroo mother care; LARC, long-acting reversible contraceptive; MPDSR, maternal and perinatal death surveillance and response; MRH, maternal and reproductive health; PM, permanent methods; RHMT, regional health management team; SBA, skilled birth attendance.

  • a Helping Babies Breathe is a training curriculum designed to improve neonatal resuscitation skills through hands-on learning and practice using the NeoNatalie newborn simulator; the training was designed to specifically meet the needs of resource-limited settings.37

  • b Kangaroo mother care is a method of care initially designed for preterm and low birthweight infants that involves the infant being held to the mother's chest for skin-to-skin contact (usually in sessions of minimum 1 hour, several times per day), early exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from the health facility. It is initiated in health facilities by specially trained health care providers and can continue at home.38

  • c Client-oriented, provider-efficient is an approach that helps health care staff continuously improve the quality and efficiency of services provided at their facility and make services more responsive to clients' needs.39