TABLE 1.

Participants’ Individual and Household Characteristics at Baseline

Intervention (N=234), Mean±SE or %Control (N=228), Mean±SE or %P Value
No. of household members5.9±0.15.8±0.1.96
Age of mother, years33.7±0.432.8±0.5.20
Age of father, years40.1±1.137.6±1.0.00
No. of children3.5±0.13.4.78
Age of index child, months19.6±0.419.9±0.4.97
Sex of index child, % male46.646.9.71
Marital status of mother.76
 Single23.229.4
 Married72.166.7
 Widowed2.11.8
 Separated/divorced2.62.2
Index mothers who are household heads, %5.66.6
Mother’s occupation.74
 Farmer95.792.5
 Housewife0.41.3
 Jobless1.72.2
 Other2.13.9
Mother’s education.06
 Informal education, never attended school12.014.9
 Lower primary (1–4)36.836.4
 Upper primary (5–8)39.337.7
 Any secondary or higher12.011.0
Father’s occupation.42
 Farmer90.687.5
 Jobless0.01.6
 Other7.411.0
Father’s education.68
 Informal education, never attended school13.614.1
 Lower primary (1–4)33.328.1
 Upper primary (5–8)43.945.3
 Any secondary or higher9.112.5
Household assets: land, ha0.1±0.00.1±0.0.41
Household domestic asset indexa9.1±0.610.1±1.0.36
CASHPOR housing indexb5.0±0.25.2±0.2.03
Household food insecurity access category.98
 Food secure13.717.0
 Mild food insecurity0.90.4
 Moderate food insecurity22.220.1
 Severe food insecurity63.262.5
  • Abbreviation: SE, standard error.

  • a Household domestic asset index was calculated for all movable assets including livestock, so that each asset was assigned a weight then adjusted for age. Higher asset scores indicate higher socioeconomic status.

  • b The CASHPOR housing index captures quality of housing by using roof, wall, and floor materials as a proxy for measuring poverty. CASHPOR scores below 5 indicate very poor housing and scores from 5 to 9 indicate poor housing.