Grouping of 22 West and Central African Countries According to Under-5 Mortality Rates Showing Selected Health System Tracer Indicators (Financing, Supply, Health Workforce, and Service Delivery) and Child Indicators

Group 1, U5MR <25 Deaths per 1,000 Live Births (N=1)aGroup 2, U5MR 25 to 75 Deaths per 1,000 Live Births (N=6)bGroup 3, U5MR >75 Deaths per 1,000 Live Births (N=15)cCountries With Data,No.
Under-5 mortality rate (Median, deaths per 1,000 live births)19.554.288.122
Annual rate of reduction (2000–2018)3.3%4.2%3.3%22
Health financinge
Median primary health care expenditure as % current health expenditure (2016–2017)63.3%67.7%73.5%14
Median primary health care expenditure per capita (2016–2017)US$94.5US$34.9US$24.713
Median domestic general government health expenditure per capita, PPP (2017)US$215.1US$34.5US$25.722
Median government expenditure on health, percentage of gross domestic product (2018)3.1%1.5%1.0%22
Median out-of-pocket expenditure, percentage of current health expenditure (2017)28.9%48.5%43.5%22
Median essential drug availability-37.1%29.0%9
Median vaccine availability-83.9%76.5%8
Median basic equipment availability-87.0%82.0%9
Median facilities with clean water, electricity, & sanitation (% of health facilities)-54.2%69.2%8
Health workforce
Median community and traditional health worker density (per 1,000 population)-0.10.110
Median health center density (per 100,000 population)
Health facility service deliveryg
At least 1 antenatal visit, median97.6%92.0%83.2%22
At least 4 antenatal visits, median72.3%77.9%51.3%22
Skilled attendance at birth, median92.3%64.8%67.3%22
Institutional delivery, median75.6%72.8%66.8%22
Child health tracer indicatorsh
Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunization coverage, median98.0%86.0%79.0%22
Children with diarrhea treated with oral rehydration salts, median-36.0%34.3%21
Children with malaria with first-line treatment (artemisinin-based combination therapy) for under-5, median-57.8%17.5%21
Children with symptoms of acute respiratory infection who received antibiotics, median-40.2%27.8%21
Other child health-related tracer indicators (multisectoral)h
Children (0–14) living with HIV, median no.-6,10010,00021
Children (0–14) living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy, median-27.5%23.4%21
Children under 5 years who are stunted (moderate and severe), median21.0%23.0%32.0%22
Children under 5 years who are wasted (severe), median-1.5%2.0%21
Children under 5 years who have their births registered, median91.4%74.7%65.6%22
Households with at least basic drinking water services, median87.1%75.6%63.3%21
Households with at least basic sanitation services, median73.9%19.3%21.6%21
Households with at least basic hygiene facilities, median-17.3%14.7%18
  • Abbreviation: U5MR, under-5 mortality rate.

  • a Cabo Verde.

  • b Senegal, Ghana, Congo, Gambia, Togo, Liberia.

  • c Mauritania, Cameroon, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Equatorial Guinea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Benin, Mali, Guinea, Sierra-Leone, Central African Republic, Chad, Nigeria.

  • d Mortality/Demographics Source: 2019 United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (United Nations Children's Fund, World Health Organization, United Nations Population Division and the World Bank Group).

  • e Health Financing Sources: Databank from The World Bank, Global Health Expenditure Database from World Health Organization, and Primary Health Care Performance Initiative.

  • f Supply Source: Based on country's latest results from the Service Availability and Readiness Assessment, if available.

  • g Health Workforce Source: Primary Health Care Performance Initiative.

  • h Health Service Delivery, Child Health, Multi-sectoral Child Needs: Based on latest Demographic and Health Survey or MICS Country Survey Results and 2019 State of the World's Children Report.