mHealth Features and Behavior Change Communication Intervention Components Used in Studies Reviewed to Assess Effectiveness of Interventions on Contraceptive Uptake, N=8

AuthorsCommunication PathwayFamily Planning Information DeliveryAdditional Intervention ComponentsTheory Framework UsedFrequency and DurationEvidence of Effect (Improved Contraceptive Use)
UnidirectionalInteractive“Push” via Telephone“Push” via Messaging“Pull” via MessagingMotivational MessageTailored InformationPartner InvolvementSearching for Nearest Service ProviderRole Model Stories
Johnson et al.18OnceNoa
Maslowsky et al.19OnceNob
McCarthy et al.200–3 messages per day for 4 monthsNoc
McCarthy et al.210–3 messages per day for 4 monthsNod
Smith et al.222 times per month for 3 monthsYese
Unger et al.23WeeklyYesf
Biswas et al.24✓*Method-specific reminders (daily/weekly)Nog,h
Harrington et al.25WeeklyYesi
  • a Application was installed, and consumer received surveys for outcome measurement but had to search app for intervention materials. Recipients of full app showed increased knowledge over recipients of the limited app but no difference in contraceptive use.

  • b Participants received 1 phone-based educational session and were invited to call back for more education and counseling, but only 3 did. Intervention participants reported higher rates of breastfeeding and use of implants, but no differences were seen in overall contraceptive use.

  • c No statistically significant difference in contraceptive use and acceptability between intervention and control. Serious contamination occurred, and both the intervention and control participants received intervention messages.

  • d No statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the use of effective contraception at 4 months. Intervention participants were more likely to find at least 1 method of effective contraception acceptable and had a higher mean knowledge score.

  • e Participants received 6 automated, interactive voice messages with counselor phone support, if they opted, and outcome was measured at 4 months and 12 months postabortion. Intervention group showed higher contraceptive use than the control group at both 4 months and 12 months, but the difference was only significant at 4 months.

  • f Both unidirectional and interactive short message service (SMS) interventions improved early postpartum contraceptive use over the control condition.

  • g Simple SMS reminder intervention did not improve contraceptive use at 4 months postabortion.

  • h Method-specific text message reminders to use method selected by participants, in their preferred language for the messages, including Bangla (Unicode), English, or phonetic Bangla in English fonts.

  • i The primary outcome of highly effective contractive (with less than 10% of failure rate) use at 6 months postpartum was significantly higher among women in the 2-way SMS group (69.9%) than in the control group (57.4%). Automated SMS text contained health education message and ended with actionable advice or a question to promote engagement.