Community-Based Girl Group Program Effects by Outcome Domains

Reported Effect Measure(s):Beneficial Out of Totala
Health beliefs/attitudes
    Improved attitudes toward early pregnancy2/2
    Increased concerns about unprotected sex2/2
    Increased demand for health servicesb2/2
    Affected their perceived vulnerability to HIV/AIDS1/1
    Improved attitudes toward female genital mutilation/cutting1/1
    Improved attitudes toward family sizes2/3
10/11 (90.9%)
Gender beliefs/attitudes
    Changed perception of gender roles and norms7/8
    Improved attitudes towards child marriage5/6
    Improved attitudes towards gender-based violence4/7
    Improved beliefs regarding girls' education1/2
    Improved attitudes towards girls’ economic empowerment1/2
18/25 (72.0%)
    Education-related outcomes
    Improved numeracy skills4/4
    Increased vocational training1/1
    Reduced need for tutoring1/1
    Increased school enrollment3/4
    Improved literacy skills2/4
    Increased school retention1/3
    Increased grade attainment1/3
13/20 (65.0%)
Psychosocial outcomes
    Increased self-efficacy regarding condom use2/2
    Increased self-efficacy to assert opinions and concerns6/7
    Increased social supportc7/9
    Increased self-efficacy to seek out HIV testing1/1
    Increased autonomy when searching for a job2/3
    Increased mobility4/10
    Improved self-esteem1/3
    Reduced experience of gender discrimination0/1
23/36 (63.8%)
    Increased HIV knowledge9/12
    Increased reproductive health knowledge6/10
    Increased STI knowledge5/9
    Increased menstrual regulation knowledge1/2
    Increased awareness of sexual and reproductive health and HIV1/2
    Increased awareness of marital-related rightsd2/4
24/39 (61.5%)
Economic and financial outcomes
    Increased household assets1/1
    Decreased food insecurity1/1
    Increased monthly expenditures1/1
    Increased number of savings accounts (formal and informal)7/8
    Increased employment5/6
    Increased earnings2/4
    Increased savings amount1/4
    Increased financial literacy0/3
    Reduced dowry practices0/2
18/30 (60.0%)
Health-related behavior
    Increased secondary abstinence1/1
    Increased menstrual hygiene management1/1
    Increased utilization of violence treatment, support, and/or prevention services1/1
    Increased health service utilization3/6
    Reduced child marriage3/8
    Increased condom use5/11
    Increased contraceptive use3/9
    Delayed sexual debut2/6
    Decreased transactional sex1/3
    Decreased number of sex partners1/7
    Reduced drugs or alcohol misuse0/1
    Increased HIV testing0/2
21/56 (37.5%)
Health status
    Improved self-rated health status1/1
    Decreased female genital mutilation/cutting1/1
    Decreased pregnanciese2/5
    Decreased experience of physical violence1/3
    Decreased experience of sexual violencef2/7
    Decreased HSV-2 incidence1/4
    Delayed pregnancy0/1
    Decreased negative mental health outcomes0/2
    Reduced STI symptoms0/3
    Decreased HIV incidence0/4
8/31 (25.8%)
  • Abbreviations: HSV-2, herpes simplex virus 2; STI, sexually transmitted infection.

  • a Denominator=total number of times each effect was measured across all the programs. Numerator=number of times a measured effect was statistically significant (i.e., beneficial). A program could not contribute to an effect’s denominator and numerator more than once. An aggregate total of the effect measures is presented at the bottom of each domain.

  • b For example, contraceptives and voluntary counseling and testing.

  • c Social support includes increasing girls’ support from elders (e.g., family and non-family adults whom girls can turn to in need) and peers (e.g., social safety nets, girls’ clubs, friends).

  • d For example, detriments of child marriage and legal age of marriage.

  • e This effect includes early, unintended, and current pregnancies.

  • f Aggregates the measurement of indicators that described experiences of rape and indecent/unwanted touching by someone of the opposite sex, including a husband.