TABLE 2.

Details of Final Sample of Community-Based Girl Group Programs, N=30

Program Name, DateCountry and SettingProgram Design and AimsParticipant DetailsGroup Characteristics and ContentEvaluation Details and Program Effectsa
The Bangladeshi
Association for Life Skills,
Income, and Knowledge for
Adolescents (BALIKA),18
2013–2015
Bangladesh,
rural
Randomized control trial
Aims:
Delay marriage among adolescent
girls by offering skills-building
approaches aimed at empowering
girls in 3 Bangladesh communities
with highest child marriage rates:
Khulna, Satkhira, and Narail
Girls:
12–18 years old, in and out
of school, unmarried
Mentors:
Local, young, slightly older than
participants
Met weekly, 2–3 hours, 18 months’
duration
Topics:
Education arm: math and English tutoring
(in-school girls), computing or financial
training (out-of-school girls)
Gender-rights arm: Life skills training on
gender rights and negotiation, critical
thinking, and decision making
Livelihoods skills training arm: Training in
computers, entrepreneurship, mobile
phone servicing, photography, and basic
first aid
All arms: Community engagement
activities, basic life skills, exposure to
using computers and tablets
Sample size:
7,452 intervention (2,516 education arm,
2,460 gender awareness arm, 2,476
livelihoods arm), 2,530 control/comparison
Effects:
Increased health service utilization
Increased menstrual hygiene management
Reduced child marriage
Improved numeracy skills
Increased school retention
Increased school enrollment
Reduced need for tutoring
Increased social support
Increased employment
Increased HIV knowledge
Increased RH knowledge
Increased STI knowledge
Improved attitudes toward child marriage
Improved attitudes toward GBV
Reduced dowry payments
Increased contraceptive use
Increased mobility
Reduced experience of gender
discrimination
Increased menstrual regulation knowledge
Increased awareness of marital-related rights
Changed perception of gender roles and
norms
Empowerment and
Livelihoods for Adolescents
(ELA): Bangladesh,19
2005–2007
Bangladesh,
rural
Quasi-experimental
Aims:
Assess program’s usefulness in terms
of delaying age of marriage, keeping
girls enrolled in school, enhancing
sociability, and increasing mobility
and awareness about health issues
Girls:
10–24 years old, in and
out of school, married and
unmarried
Mentors:
BRAC program supervisor
30 girls, met weekly, 2–3 hours
Topics:
Health, life skills training, microfinance,
girls' rights, books, games
Sample size:
322 intervention, 242 control/
comparison
Effects:
Increased mobility
Increased social support
Increased earnings
Increased savings amount
Increased financial literacy
Growing Up Safe &
Healthy,20 2012–2013
Bangladesh,
urban
Randomized control trial
Aims:
Improve sexual and RH and rights,
reduce intimate-partner violence
among women and girls in urban
slums, reduce child marriage
Girls:
10–35 years old, in and out of
school, married (15–29-years
old) and unmarried (10–14
years old)
Mentors:
Observed leadership qualities,
rapport with community,
willingness to work on
campaign activities
15 girls, 20 months’ duration
Topics:
Life skills training, legal rights/GBV,
referrals to health or legal services
Also included:
Boys/young men engagement
Sample size:
2,656 interventionb (1,910 female [15-19
years old], 746 male [18–24 years
old]),1287 control/comparisonb (952
female [15–19 years old], 335 male
[18–24 years old])
Effects:
Decreased experience of physical violence
Decreased experience of sexual violence
Reduced child marriage
Kishori Abhijan,21
2001–2003
Bangladesh,
rural
Quasi-experimental
Aims:
Promote a gender-equitable
environment where girls can broaden
their choices, participate in
empowering social and economic
processes, and realize their potential
as agents for social change
Girls:
10–19 years old, in and out of
school, married and unmarried
Mentors:
Employed at BRAC or Center for
Mass Education and Science,
demonstrated experience and
capacity working with adolescent
girls
Group characteristics information was
not specified
Topics:
Life skills training, legal rights, gender,
economic empowerment (savings
accounts, credit access)
Sample size:
1,901 intervention, 310 control/
comparison
Effects:
Increased employment
Reduced child marriage
Increased school retention
Reduced dowry practices
Ishraq,2225 2001–2013Egypt,
rural
Quasi-experimental
Aims:
Create safe spaces where out-of-
school girls can learn, play, and
build self-confidence, improve out-
of-school girls' knowledge and
attitudes regarding transitions to
adulthood (e.g., early marriage, RH,
and education)
Girls:
13–15 years old (pilot), 11–15
years old (scale-up), out of
school (both phases)
Mentors:
Local, at least secondary school
education
30 girls, met 4 days/week, 4 hours, pilot
for 30 months, scale-up for 20 months
duration
Topics:
Life skills training, sports, livelihoods
training, domestic skills, legal rights, IDs/
official documentation, financial
education, nutrition
Also included:
Boys/young men engagement
Sample size:
Pilot: 453 intervention, 134
control/comparison
Scale-up: 1,321 intervention, 539
control/comparison
Effects:
Decreased female genital
mutilation/cuttingc
Improved numeracy skills Improved
literacy skills
Increased self-efficacy to assert opinions
and concerns
Increased RH knowledge
Improved attitudes toward child marriage
Improved attitudes toward family sizes
Improved attitudes toward female genital
mutilation/cutting
Changed perception of gender roles and
norms
Increased health service utilization
Increased mobility
Improved self-esteem
Improved attitudes toward GBV
Improved beliefs regarding girls'
education
Berhane Hewan,26
2004–2006
Ethiopia,
rural
Quasi-experimental
Aims:
Improve educational attainment, RH
knowledge, contraceptive use, and
age at first marriage
Girls:
10–19 years old, in and out of
school, married and unmarried
Mentors:
10th grade education
15–20 girls, unmarried girls met
5 days/week, married girls met weekly
Topics:
Nonformal education, livelihoods training,
referrals to RH services
Sample size:
650 interventionb, 736 control/
comparisonb
Effects:
Increased contraceptive use
Reduced child marriage
Increased school enrollment
Increased HIV knowledge
Increased awareness of sexual and RH
and HIV/AIDS
Increased STI knowledge
Improved literacy skills
Increased grade attainment
Biruh Tesfa,2729
2006–2016
Ethiopia,
urban
Quasi-experimental
Aims:
Increase social networks and support
to poorest, most marginalized girls in
poorest urban areas of Ethiopia;
improve girls’ knowledge and skills to
prevent HIV
Girls:
7–18 years old, out of school,
married and unmarried
Mentors:
Adult women from the
community
Met 5 days/week, 2 hours, 38 sessions
Topics:
Life skills, HIV counseling and treatment,
financial literacy, vouchers for health care,
school materials
Sample size:
Gondar: 767 intervention,b 405 control/
comparisonb
Addis Ababa: 630 intervention, 646
control/comparison
Effects:
Increased health service utilization
Improved numeracy skills
Improved literacy skills
Increased school enrollment
Increased social support
Increased HIV knowledge
Increased demand for health services
Increased HIV testing
Increased grade attainment
Better Life Options,30
2006–2008
India,
rural
Quasi-experimental
Aims:
Enhance girls' awareness of sexual
and RH matters; build agency in
terms of mobility, decision making,
and sense of self-worth; foster
egalitarian gender role attitudes;
develop vocational skills and future
work aspirations; influence
perceptions about marriage and
their ability to negotiate marriage-
related decisions and success in
delaying marriage and first
pregnancy
Girls:
13–17 years old, in and
out of school, unmarried
Mentors:
Young, educated, articulate,
local, can manage big groups
15–20 girls, met almost daily,
2 hours, 6–9 months’ duration
Topics:
Life skills training, livelihoods, sports
Sample size:
810 intervention, 228 control
Effects:
Increased mobility
Increased number of savings accounts
(formal & informal)
Increased HIV knowledge
Increased STI knowledge
Increased awareness of marital-related
rights
Improved attitudes toward child marriage
Changed perception of gender roles and
norms
Reduced child marriage
Increased self-efficacy to assert opinions
and concerns
Increased RH knowledge
Increased awareness of sexual and RH
and HIV
First-time Parents Project,31
2003–2004
India,
rural
Quasi-experimental
Aims:
Develop and test integrated package
of health and social interventions to
improve married young women's
reproductive and sexual health
knowledge and practices, enhance
their ability to act in their own
interest, and expand their social
support networks
Girls:
Mean age 19.4 years old, in-
school status not reported, only
years of schooling completed,
married
Mentors:
Staff of Child In Need Institute
or Deepak Charitable Trust
8–12 girls, met monthly, 2–3
hours
Topics:
Legal literacy, vocational training,
savings and credit management,
pregnancy, gender, spousal
relationships
Also included:
Access and quality improvements of
health services
Sample size:
Diamond Harbour: 403
intervention, 259 control
Effects:
Increased self-efficacy to assert opinions
and concerns
Increased social support
Increased STI knowledge
Changed perception of gender roles and
norms
Increased contraceptive use
Increased mobility
Improved attitudes toward GBV
Promoting Change in
Reproductive Behavior
in Bihar (PRACHAR),3236
2001–2004
India,
rural
Quasi-experimental
Aims:
Change beliefs of people 12–24
years old about RH/FP, challenge
traditional behavior patterns of early
childbearing and inadequate spacing
between children, and promote
informed and healthy reproductive
behavior; change parents’ beliefs and
influential community adults about
RH/FP, provide knowledge to discourage
early marriage of daughters, curb
pressure on young couples for early
childbearing, and encourage
adequate spacing of subsequent
children; increase use of
contraceptives among young married
couples, particularly to delay first child
until mother is mature, and to space
subsequent births by at least 3–5 years
Girls:
15–24 years old, in and out of
school, married and unmarried
Mentors:
Semi-literate, known and
respected by community
members
30 girls,
Phase 1 duration:
21 months (Patna)
24 months (Nawada)
27 months (Nalanda)
Phase 2 duration: Not specified
Phase 3 duration: 7 months
Topics:
Sexual and RH, nutrition, spousal
negotiation, gender norms
Also included:
Boys/young men engagement, access
and quality improvements of health
services
Sample size:
Phase 3: 2,171 intervention (1,382
female, 789 male), 1,050 control/
comparison (679 female, 371 male)
Effects:
Increased contraceptive use
Increased grade attainment
Increased mobility
Increased self-efficacy to assert opinions
and concerns
Increased autonomy when searching for a
job
Increased number of savings accounts
(formal & informal)
Increased HIV knowledge
Increased RH knowledge
Increased menstrual regulation knowledge
Increased awareness of marital-related
rights
Improved attitudes toward child marriage
Improved attitudes toward early pregnancy
Increased demand for health services
Changed perceptions of gender roles and
norms
Reduced child marriage
Delayed pregnancy
Improving Learning
Outcomes and Transition
to Secondary School
Study,37 2013–2015
Kenya,
urban
Quasi-experimental
Aims:
Promote access to and improve the
quality of secondary education among
girls who live in informal urban
settlements
Girls:
12–19 years old, in school
Mentors:
21–40 years old, completed
secondary school
230 after-school sessions, 34 life skills
sessions
Topics:
Life skills training, homework support on
numeracy and literacy
Sample size:
855 intervention, 416 control/comparison
Effects:
Improved numeracy skills
Improved literacy skills
Nyeri Youth Health
Project,38 1998–2000
Kenya,
urban and
rural
Quasi-experimental
Aims:
Delay sexual debut among sexually
inexperienced youth, prevent
negative sexual health outcomes
among sexually experienced youth,
create RH information and service
environment that was responsive to
information and service needs of
young people
Girls:
10–24 years old, in and out of
school, unmarried
Mentors:
Local, respected, well-known
adults and young parents
Met weekly, 90–120 minutes, 4–8 weeks’
duration
Topics:
Life skills training
Sample size:
2,504 interventionb (1,220 female, 1,284
male),905 controlb (472 female, 443 male)
Effects:
Decreased number of sex partners
Increased secondary abstinence
Increased self-efficacy to assert opinions and
concerns
Increased condom use
Delayed sexual debut
Safe and Smart Savings,39
2008–2010
Kenya,
urban
Quasi-experimental
Aims:
Develop, pilot test, and roll-out
individual savings accounts to girls
belonging to girls' groups
Program evaluation aims: Understand
the social, economic, and health
effects of participating in program
activities
Girls:
10–19 years old, in and out of
school, unmarried
Mentors:
Young women from community
15–25 girls, met weekly, 30–90 minutes,
16 sessions
Topics:
Financial education, RH information
Sample size:
615 intervention, 284 control/comparison
Effects:
Increased mobility
Increased autonomy when job searching
Increased social support
Increased number of savings accounts
(formal and informal)
Decreased experience of sexual violence
Tap and Reposition
Youth,40 2001–2004
Kenya,
urban
Quasi-experimental
Aims:
Reduce adolescents’ vulnerabilities to
adverse social and RH outcomes by
improving their livelihood options
Girls:
16–22 years old, out of school,
married and unmarried
Mentors:
Must have worked in a
profession related to counseling,
social work, business, health
care, community development,
or business
15–25 girls, met weekly, 1–2 hours,
36 months’ duration
Topics:
Loan policies and procedures, business
advice, gender issues, team building,
adolescent RH, life skills, HIV/AIDS
Sample size:
222 intervention, 222 control/comparison
Effects:
Increased earnings
Increased number of savings accounts
(formal and informal)
Increased household assets
Increased self-efficacy regarding condom
use
Increased HIV knowledge
Increased condom use
Increased savings amount
Increased RH knowledge
Increased STI knowledge
Improved attitudes toward girls' economic
empowerment
Improved attitudes toward GBV
iCuídate! Promueve tu
Salud (Take Care of
Yourself! Promote Your
Health),41 2002–2004
Mexico,
urban
Randomized control trial
Aims:
Increase use of condoms and other
contraceptives, decrease risky sexual
behaviors of Mexican youth
Girls:
13–17 years old, in school
Mentors:
Trained
6–8 girls, met weekly, 6 hours, 2
consecutive Saturdays
Topics:
HIV/AIDS, health promotion, exercise,
nutrition, substance abuse
Also included:
Boys/young men engagement
Sample size:
394 intervention,d 314control/comparisond
Effects:
Increased condom use
Increased contraceptive use
Delayed sexual debut
Choices,42,43 2010Nepal,
rural
Quasi-experimental
Aims:
Improve gender equity among very
young adolescents
Girls:
10–14 years old, in school,
unmarried
Mentors:
18–24 years old, graduate of
the clubs, community members
Met weekly, 2 hours, 3 months’ duration
Topic:
Gender norms
Also included:
Boys/young men engagement
Sample size:
309 intervention (148 female, 161 male),
294 control/comparison (135 female, 159
male)
Effects:
Improved attitudes toward GBV
Improved beliefs regarding girls' education
Changed perception of gender roles and
norms
Networks of Hope,44
2012–2014
South Africa,
rural
Randomized control trial
Aims:
For psychological intervention,
mitigate mental health problems;
for behavioral intervention, build
participants' HIV knowledge and
related skills; Both interventions
were situated within broader OVC
program offering educational and
economic support to adolescents
and their families
Girls: 14–17 years old; enrolled
in OVC programming
Mentors:
Trained lay adult (for
psychological intervention),
trained young adult from
community (for behavioral
intervention)
18 girls, met weekly, 60–90
minutes, 13–16 weeks’ duration
Topics:
Life skills training, group therapy
Also included:
Boys/young men engagement, access
and quality improvements of health
services
Sample size:
785 intervention (375 female, 410 male),
229 control/comparison (110 female,
119 male)
Effects:
Increased condom use
Decreased number of sex partners
Delayed sexual debut
Siyakha Nentsha,45
2008–2012
South Africa,
rural
Quasi-experimental
Aims:
Powered to detect increased number
of participants who save money and
knowledge of government social
grants, decrease social exclusion,
increase interaction with formal
financial institutions, improve HIV-
prevention behaviors
Girls:
Grade 10-11, in school
Mentors:
20–24 years old, recent
secondary school graduates,
local
Met 2–3 days/week, 1 hour, 2 years’
duration
Topics:
Life skills training, nutrition, rights,
financial literacy, job readiness
Also included:
Boys/young men engagement
Sample size:
359 femalee, 356 malee
Effects:
Increased social support
Increased number of savings accounts
(formal and informal)
Decreased number of sex partners
Stepping Stones,46,47
2003–2006
South Africa,
rural
Randomized control trial
Aims:
Reduce incidence of HIV and HSV-2
and improve sexual practices among
youth in South Africa's rural Eastern
Cape Province
Girls:
16–26 years old, in and out of
school
Mentors:
Same age or slightly older than
girls, had post-school
qualification, open-minded and
gender sensitive
3 hours, 6–8 weeks’ duration
Topics:
Life skills training,GBV, HIV counseling/
treatment, comprehensive sex education
Also included:
Boys/young men engagement
Sample size:
1,409 intervention (715 female, 694
male), 1,367 control/comparison (701
female, 666 male)
Effects:
Decreased HSV-2 incidenceDecreased HIV incidence
Decreased pregnancies
Decreased experience of physical violence
Decreased negative mental health outcomes
Decreased experience of sexual violence
Decreased transactional sex
Increased condom use
Decreased number of sex partners
Reduced drugs or alcohol misuse
Adolescent Development
Program,48 2009–2011
Tanzania,
urban and
rural
Randomized control trial
Aims:
Improve human capital and
financial market participation of
young women by providing
vocational training and information
on sex, reproduction, and marriage
Girls:
14–20 years old, in and
out of school, married and
unmarried
Mentors:
Adolescent leader from same
community, few years older than
girls
Met 5 days/week, 2 hours
Topics:
Sexual and RH, Life skills training,
ivelihood training, microfinance/
microcredit, laws and rights
Sample size:3,179f
Effects:
Increased number of savings accounts
(formal and informal)
Changed perception of gender roles and
norms
Decreased pregnancies
Reduced STI symptoms
Decreased experience of sexual violence
Increased condom use
Delayed sexual debut
Reduced child marriage
Increased school retention
Increased employment
Increased earnings
Increased savings amount
Increased HIV knowledge
Improved attitudes toward child marriage
Improved attitudes toward family sizes
Mabinti Tushike
Hatamu!,49 2012–2015
Tanzania,
urban and
rural
Quasi-experimental
Aims:
Reduce adolescent girls’ vulnerability
to HIV, pregnancy, and violence
Girls:
10–19 years old, out of school,
married and unmarried
Mentors:
19–23 years old, similar to
participants, recruited by local
government or advertisement
10–15 girls, met 1–2 days/week, 32
months’ duration
Topics:
Life skills, income-generating activities,
GBV education, education
Sample size:
291 intervention, 357 control/comparison
Effects:
Increased condom use
Increased health service utilization
Increased utilization of violence treatment,
support, and/or prevention services
Increased vocational training
Increased self-efficacy to assert opinions
and concerns
Increased social support
Increased employment
Increased RH knowledge
Decreased negative mental health outcomes
Increased contraceptive use
Decreased number of sex partners
Delayed sexual debut
Increased mobility
Improved self-esteem
Increased financial literacy
Young Citizens Program,50
2004–2005
Tanzania,
urban
Randomized control trial
Aims:
Increase youth participants' competencies
so that they can plan and implement
integrated health promotion activities
that educate their communities and
encourage them to take action toward
HIV/AIDS prevention, testing, and treatment
Girls:
9–14 years old, in and out
of school
Mentors:
Young adults, completed
secondary school, previous
experience in youth-related
HIV activities
Met weekly, 2–3 hours, 28 weeks’
duration
Topics:
Social ecology, citizenship, community
health, HIV/AIDS knowledge
Also included:
Boys/young men engagement
Sample size:
313 intervention,g 300 control/
comparisong
Effects:
Increased self-efficacy to assert opinions
and concerns
Empowerment and
Livelihoods for
Adolescents: Uganda,51
2008–2010
Uganda,
urban and
rural
Randomized control trial
Aims:
Bolster girls’ cognitive and
noncognitive skills with: vocational
skills training to enable adolescent
girls to start small-scale income
generating activities, life skills to
build knowledge and reduce risky
behaviors
Girls:
14–20 years old, in and out of
school, married and unmarried
Mentors:
From community, slightly older
than target girl population
Met 5 days/week, 2 years’
duration
Topics:
Life skills training, sexual and RH,
vocational training, financial
literacy
Sample size:
3,964 intervention, 2,002 control/comparison
Effects:
Decreased experience of sexual violence
Decreased pregnancies
Increased condom use
Reduced child marriage
Increased employment
Increased monthly expenditures
Increased HIV knowledge
Increased RH knowledge
Improved attitudes toward child marriage
Improved attitudes toward early pregnancy
Improved attitudes toward family sizes
Changed perception of gender roles and norms
Reduced STI symptoms
Increased contraceptive use
Increased health service utilization
Increased school enrollment
Increased earnings
Safe and Smart
Savings,39,52
2009–2011
Uganda,
urban
Quasi-experimental
Aims:
Develop, pilot test, and roll-out
individual savings accounts to girls
belonging to girls'groups
Program evaluation aims:
Understand the social, economic,
and health effects of participating in
program activities
Girls:
10–19 years old, in and out of
school, unmarried
Mentors:
20–35 years old, reside in same
community as girls in group,
interest in working with
vulnerable adolescent girls
15–25 girls, met weekly, 30–90 minutes,
16 sessions
Topics:
Financial education, RH information
Sample size:
750 intervention, 312 control/comparison
Effects:
Increased number of savings accounts
(formal and informal)
Increased HIV knowledge
Improved attitudes toward GBV
Increased HIV testing
Increased mobility
Increased autonomy when job searching
Increased social support
Decreased experience of sexual violence
Suubi Project,5358
2005–2016
Uganda,
rural
Randomized control trial
Aims:
Suubi: Improve health, mental health,
and life chances of AIDS-orphaned
adolescents through microfinance and
economic empowerment
Suubi-Maka: Improve orphaned
adolescents' attitudes toward HIV-
preventive practices and future cash
savings over time, as well as increase
their cash savings
Suubi+Bridges: Develop ability to
identify future goals and educational
aspirations by building their self-
esteem; Improve school attendance
and grades, encourage hopefulness,
enhance safe sex decision making,
and decrease sexual risk-taking
behavior
Girls:
11–17 years old, in school,
unmarried
Mentors:
University students, tried to
recruit graduates of program
7 girls maximum
Suubi: Monthly, 1–2 hours, 12 sessions
Suubi-Maka: Not specified
Suubi+Bridges: Monthly, 1 hour, 9 months’
duration
Topics:
Child savings accounts, financial literacy,
asset building, life skills, HIV prevention
Also included:
Boys/young men engagement
Sample size:
Suubi: 135 intervention (82 female, 53
male),
142 control/comparison (75 female, 67
male)
Suubi-Maka:179 intervention (117
female, 62 male),
167 control/comparison (108 female, 59
male)
Suubi+Bridges: 913 intervention (398
female, 515 male),
497 control/comparison (228 female,
269 male)
Effects:
Improved self-rated health
Improved self-esteem
Increased savings amount
Increased HIV knowledge
Affected their perceived
vulnerability to HIV/AIDS
Increased concerns about unprotected sex
Improved attitudes toward girls' economic
empowerment
Exploring the World of
Adolescents,59 2006
Vietnam,
urban and
rural
Randomized control trial
Aims:
Increase knowledge about HIV, STIs,
and pregnancy and contraceptives;
improve perceptions related to
condom use and abstinence;
increase condom use response
efficacy; decrease intention to engage
in sex in the next 3 months
Girls:
15–20 years old, in and
out of school, unmarried
Mentors:
Trained, from the community
10 girls, met weekly for 2 hours, 10
sessions
Topic:
Life skills training
Also included:
Boys/young men engagement, access
and quality improvements of health
services
Sample size:
281 intervention (149 female,132 male),
317 control/comparison (167 female,
150 male)
Effects:
Increased HIV knowledge
Increased RH knowledge
Increased STI knowledge
Focus on Kids,59,60
2001–2003
Vietnam,
urban and
rural
Randomized control trial
Aims:
Increase knowledge about HIV, STIs,
and pregnancy and contraceptives;
improve perceptions related to
condom use and abstinence; increase
condom use response efficacy;
decrease intention to engage in sex in
the next 3 months
Girls:
15–20 years old, in and
out of school, unmarried
Mentors:
Trained, from the community
10 girls, met weekly, 2 hours, 10 sessions
Topic:
Life skills training
Also included:
Boys/young men engagement, access
and quality improvements of health
services
Sample size:
317 intervention (167 female, 150 male),
281 control/comparison (149 female,
132 male)
Effects:
Increased HIV knowledge
Increased RH knowledge
Increased STI knowledge
Adolescent Girls'
Empowerment
Program,61,62
2013–2016
Zambia,
urban and
rural
Randomized control trial
Aims:
Empower adolescent girls by instilling
them with social, health, and economic
assets that they can draw upon to
reduce vulnerabilities and expand
opportunities, thereby increasing their
likelihood of completing school and
delaying sexual debut and reducing
the risks of early marriage, unintended
pregnancy, and HIV acquisition
Girls:
10–19 years old, in and
out of school, unmarried
Mentors:
20–40 years old, completed
grade 12, can speak and write
in English, experienced
20–30 girls, met weekly, 1–2 hours, 3
years’ duration
Topics:
Life skills training, savings account, health
vouchers
Also included:
Access and quality improvements of health
services
Sample size:
3,104 intervention (1,043 safe space
arm, 1,031 safe space+health voucher
arm, 1,030 safe space+health
voucher+savings account arm),
1530 control/comparison
Effects:
Decreased transactional sex
Increased condom use
Delayed sexual debut
Increased STI knowledge
Improved attitudes toward GBV
Decreased HIV incidence
Decreased HSV-2 incidence
Increased mobility
Increased number of savings accounts
(formal and informal)
Increased financial literacy
Regai Dzive Shiri
Project,63,64
2003–2007
Zimbabwe,
rural
Randomized control trial
Aims:
Reduce incidence of HIV and HSV-2
and rates of unintended pregnancy,
improve knowledge, attitudes, and
behaviors related to gender issues,
HIV, and sexual risk
Girls:
18–22 years old, in and
out of school, married and unmarried
Mentors:
School leaver in the year between
leaving school and starting
university
20–30 girls, 4 weeks’ duration
Topics:
HIV prevention, self-awareness and
communication, rural development (risk
and body mapping, drama,
storytelling, and role play)
Also included:
Boys/young men engagement, access
and quality improvements of health
services
Sample size:
2,319 intervention (1,241 female, 1,078
male),1,353 control/comparison (1,352
female, 1,001 male)
Effects:
Decreased pregnancies
Increased self-efficacy regarding condom
use
Increased self-efficacy to seek out HIV
testing
Increased RH knowledge
Increased STI knowledge
Increased concerns about unprotected sex
Decreased HIV incidence
Decreased HSV-2 incidence
Reduced STI symptoms
Increased condom use
Increased contraceptive use
Increased health service utilization
Decreased number of sex partners
Increased awareness of marital-related
rights
Shaping the Health of
Adolescents in Zimbabwe
(SHAZ!) Project,65
2006–2008
Zimbabwe,
urban
Randomized control trial
Aims:
Improve sexual and structural risk
factors and decrease unintended
pregnancy and HIV and HSV-2
incidence among adolescent female
orphans
Girls:
16–19 years old, out of school,
married and unmarried
Mentors:
Self-selected adults
25 girls, 4–6 weeks’ duration,
additional 6 months duration for
livelihoods component
Topics:
Life skills training, livelihoods, microgrants
Also included:
Access and quality improvements of health
services
Sample size:
158 intervention, 157 control/comparison
Effects:
Increased employment
Decreased food insecurity
Decreased HIV incidence
Decreased HSV-2 incidence
Decreased pregnancies
Decreased experience of physical
violence
Decreased experience of sexual violence
Increased condom use
Increased contraceptive use
Decreased transactional sex
Decreased number of sex
partners
Increased social support
  • Abbreviations: FP, family planning; GBV, gender-based violence; HSV-2, herpes simplex virus 2; RH, reproductive health; STIs, sexually transmitted infections.

  • a Italicized effects signify statistical significance [α=0.05]).

  • b Evaluation used cross-sectional surveys to collect baseline and end line data; although, the methodology report didn’t contain details on matching or follow-up. Based on the assumption that baseline and end line samples covered different people, we aggregated the number of respondents across both in the calculation.

  • c Though female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) significantly increased for participants in control group compared to intervention arm, the study cites differing FGM traditions may be the reason, e.g., ages villages traditionally perform FGM/C. Difference between baseline and end line prevalence show most girls (>50%) in program villages entered program already circumcised, while most girls in control villages (<40%) were not. This suggests control villages perform FGM/C at later ages than program villages and the statistically significant difference-in-difference calculation between program and control villages might not be attributable to intervention.

  • d Evaluation reports more female than male participants (405 versus 303) but doesn’t report numbers of females/males in each arm.

  • e Evaluation provides sex-stratified demographic information/analyses; doesn’t report numbers of females/males in each arm.

  • f Total sample size for both intervention and control/comparison arm; evaluation doesn’t specify numbers for each.

  • g Evaluation controls for sex in multivariable models but doesn’t report numbers of females/males in each arm.