TABLE 3.

Association Between Coaching Intensity and EBP Adherence Among BAs During Births in 15 Health Facilities, Uttar Pradesh, India (N=2,083 Births)

Coaching DomainUnits in IQR IncreaseModel 1aModel 2b
Change in Practices Adhered to Associated With 1-Unit Increase (95% CI)Change in Practices Adhered to Associated With IQR Increase (95% CI)P ValueChange in Practices Adhered to Associated With 1-Unit Increase (95% CI)Change in Practices Adhered to Associated With IQR Increase (95% CI)P Value
Coaching frequency
Visits in the past month6.00.2 (0.1, 0.3)1.3 (0.6, 1.9)<.010.2 (−0.0, 0.4)1.0 (−0.1, 2.2).10
Mean visits in the past month per BA1.31.0 (0.6, 1.4)1.2 (0.7, 1.8)<.010.9 (0.2, 1.6)1.2 (0.3, 2.1).01
BAs receiving ≥1 visit in past month, %702.8 (1.4, 4.2)2.0 (1.0, 2.9).013.4 (1.0, 5.8)2.4 (0.7, 4.0).03
Standard deviation in visits among BAs past month1.30.9 (0.5, 1.4)1.2 (0.6, 1.8).010.7 (0.0, 1.5)1.0 (-0.0, 1.9).08
Cumulative coaching
Total visits8.0−0.0 (−0.1, 0.0)−0.4 (−0.8, 0.1).090.1 (0.0, 0.1)0.6 (0.3, 0.9).07
Mean visits per BA5.3−0.2 (−0.4, 0.0)−1.0 (−2.1, 0.1).090.2 (0.0, 0.4)1.0 (0.0, 2.0).21
BAs receiving ≥10 visits, %40−3.0 (−5.9, −0.1)−1.2 (−2.4, 0.0).120.3 (−3.5, 4.1)0.1 (−1.4, 1.6).89
Standard deviation in visits among BAs3.5−0.2 (−0.4, 0.1)−0.6 (−1.5, 0.2).120.3 (0.0, 0.5)0.9 (0.2, 1.7).08
Scheduling adherence
Current scheduling nonadherenceNAc0.3 (−0.7, 1.3).55-0.5 (−1.3, 0.4).27
Cumulative scheduling nonadherence12−0.0 (−0.1, 0.0)−0.5 (−1.0, 0.1).080.1 (0.0, 0.1)0.8 (0.0, 1.6).11
  • Abbreviations: BA, birth attendant; CI, confidence interval; EBP, essential birth practice; IQR, interquartile range, NA, not applicable.

  • Effects are reported for a 1-unit increase and for increasing each continuous coaching metric from its 25th percentile to its 75th percentile, that is, by 1 IQR. Results are from a generalized linear model with an identity link. Standard errors are estimated using the empirical variance with an exchangeable working covariance structure to account for clustering at the facility level.

  • a Adjusted for whether the facility was in a high-priority district, distance to district hospital, facility staff size, facility delivery load, and whether birth occurred on the same day as a coaching visit.

  • b Adjusted for everything in Model 1 plus months since start of the intervention.

  • c Because current scheduling nonadherence is a binary outcome, we report the effect for nonadherence vs. no adherent, rather than for a 1 IQR increase.