Zika Preventive Behaviors Not Selected for Full Evidence Review and Reasons for Exclusion

BehaviorOutside Locus of ControlLimited or No Evidence of EffectivenessChallenging in This SettingBehavior Is in Pilot PhaseUSAID Not SupportingSummary
Use of insecticide-treated bed netsThis behavior has limited efficacy, as most people sleep during the night and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes bite mainly during the day, limiting the time nets might provide Zika protection to daytime naps. Additionally, USAID is not procuring mosquito nets for Zika since they are not effective because of the daytime biting behavior of Aedes mosquitoes.
Wearing long sleeves, light colorsIn the climate where Zika is transmitted, implementing this behavior with sufficient consistency (all day, every day) is unlikely to be feasible, reducing its potential to make an important contribution to Zika prevention. There is also limited evidence that wearing regular clothing that has not been treated with insecticide is effective in preventing mosquito bites.
Application of larvicideWhile considered highly efficacious, larvicides should be applied by vector control technicians, rather than household members, so control over implementation of this behavior does not lie at the household level.
Larvivorous fishApplication of larvivorous fish to water storage containers is still in the pilot phase; limited data available on efficacy. Additionally, USAID is not procuring larvivorous fish, and the behavior is outside the locus of household control since it is currently being done by vector control specialists who visit the home.
Indoor residual sprayingThis behavior is implemented by vector control technicians and therefore does not lie within the control of the household. There is limited literature on the efficacy of this intervention as it is traditionally only used for anopheline mosquitoes; some pilots are in progress to test for effectiveness for Aedes mosquitoes.
Use of insecticide-treated curtains/screensThere is some evidence that insecticide-treated curtains or screens are effective in preventing Aedes abundance indoors; however, USAID is not procuring these.
Use of coils to repel mosquitoesEfficacy appears limited upon initial review, with some studies even suggesting they increase dengue risk.
Planting basil plantsWhile some research suggests that essential oils extracted from plants may have a repellent effect, no studies were identified that assess the repellent effect of basil plants.