TABLE 1.

Baseline Characteristics of Participants Recruited in Kisumu, Kenya (2014)

Intervention (n=207)Control (n=197)Total (N=404)P Valuea
Age, years, median (IQR)24 (22, 28)25 (22, 29)25 (22, 29)
Educational level, n/N (%)
No education or adult literacy4/207 (1.9)3/197 (1.5)7/404 (1.7).72
Primary/preschool133/207 (64.3)134/197 (68.0)267/404 (66.1)
Secondary or higher70/207 (33.8)60/197 (30.5)130/404 (32.2)
Current marital status, n/N (%)
Married/cohabiting169/207 (81.6)164/197 (83.3)333/404 (82.4).31
Never married25/207 (12.1)16/197 (8.1)41/404 (10.2)
Divorced/separated/widowed13/207 (6.3)17/197 (8.6)30/404 (7.4)
Living arrangements, n/N (%)
Lives by herself12/207 (5.8)14/197 (7.1)26/404 (6.4).25
Lives with partner/spouse/children155/207 (74.9)157/197 (79.7)312/404 (77.2)
Lives with other relatives/friends40/207 (19.3)26/197 (13.2)66/404 (16.3)
Employment status, n/N (%)
Employed25/207 (12.1)39/197 (19.8)64/404 (15.8).03
Not employed182/207 (87.9)158/197 (80.2)340/404 (84.2)
Home district, n/N (%)
Kisumu60/207 (29.0)67/197 (34.0)127/404 (31.4).28
Others147/207 (71.0)130/197 (66.0)277/404 (68.6)
Pregnancy duration at recruitment, n/N (%)
14-28 weeks161/207 (77.8)155/197 (78.7)316/404 (78.2).83
29-36 weeks46/207 (22.2)42/197 (21.3)88/404 (21.8)
Total pregnancies, including current, median (IQR)3 (2, 4)3 (2, 4)3 (2, 4).38
Total number of children
Living, mean (SD)1.0 (1.5)1.7 (1.0)1.8 (1.3).045
Dead, mean (SD)1.2 (1.6)1.4 (1.3)1.3 (1.5).34
Duration of HIV+ status, n/N (%)
1 year or less136/207 (65.7)132/197 (67.0)268/404 (66.3).63
2–4 years49/207 (23.7)40/197 (20.3)89/404 (22.0)
5 or more years22/207 (10.6)25/197 (12.7)47/404 (11.6)
Disclosed status to partner/spouse, n/N (%)120/207 (58.0)116/197 (58.9)236/404 (58.4)
Knows the HIV status of spouse/partner, n/N (%)
Yes110/207 (53.1)105/196 (53.6)215/403 (53.4).93
Don't know97/207 (46.9)91/196 (46.4)188/403 (46.7)
HIV status of spouse/partner, n/N (%)
Positive77/110 (70.0)76/105 (72.4)153/215 (71.2).70
Negative33/110 (30.0)29/105 (27.6)62/215 (28.8)
ART use, n/N (%)
Naïve118/207 (57.0)113/197 (57.4)231/404 (57.2).94
Experienced89/207 (43.0)84/197 (42.6)173/404 (42.8)
Type of ARV treatment assigned at PMTCT, n/N (%)
Option A (only AZT)84/207 (40.6)84/197 (42.6)168/404 (41.6).88
Option B (3 ARVs)123/207 (59.4)113/197 (57.4)236/404 (58.4)
CD4 cell counts at baseline,b n/N (%)
<350 cells/ml50/162 (30.8)53/156 (34.0)103/318 (32.4).64
351–500 cells/ml37/162 (22.8)39/156 (25.0)76/318 (23.9)
>500 cells/ml75/162 (46.3)64/156 (41.0)139/318 (43.7)
Viral load at baseline,c n/N (%).38
<1000 copies/ml70/90 (77.8)60/72 (83.3)130/162 (80.3)
>1001 copies/ml20/90 (22.2)12/72 (16.7)32/162 (19.8)
Stigma score (16–64), n/N (%)
Low (16–40)146/207 (70.5)135/197 (68.5)281/404 (69.6).32
Moderate (41–52)59/207 (28.5)62/197 (31.5)121/404 (30.0)
High (53–64)2/207 (1.0)0/197 (0.0)2/404 (0.5)
Depression score (10–60), n/N (%)
No depression (<16)136/207 (65.7)107/197 (54.3)243/404 (60.2).02
Sign of depression (≥16)71/207 (34.3)90/197 (45.7)161/404 (39.9)
General health perception (0–100), n/N (%)
Good/excellent (>60)99/207 (47.8)76/197 (38.6)175/404 (43.3).06
Average/poor/very poor (≤60)108/207 (52.2)121/197 (61.4)229/404 (56.7)
  • Abbreviations: ART, antiretroviral therapy; ARV, antiretroviral; AZT, zidovudine; CD4, cluster of differentiation 4; IQR, interquartile range; PMTCT, prevention of mother-to-child transmission; SD, standard deviation.

  • a P value is from chi-square test for discrete variables; Mann-Whitney U test for median and t test in case of means for continuous variables.

  • b CD4 cell counts were obtained from clinic records; there are missing values due to missing records.

  • c Viral load tests were initiated late in the course of the study, thus results are available for only some participants.