TABLE 3.

Average Scores of Delphi Study Participants for Confidence in and Degree of Consensusa on Effectiveness and Feasibility of Common UHC Policy Options, Classified by Increasing Confidence in Effectiveness

UHC Dimension CodePolicy OptionEffectivenessFeasibility
ConfidenceConsensusConfidenceConsensus
B5Community-based health insurance40754960
F5Performance-based aid funding43724872.5
S5Performance-based payment of providers4867.54980
F1Ring-fenced budgets48805673.75
S2Expansion of population covered49805470
F2Innovative financing51805965
S4Public-private partnerships54805872.5
B2Fee exemption for poorest55806685
B6Vouchers56806375
F4Reduction of inefficiencies59756075
B1Fee exemption for children and pregnant women60806477.5
F3Pooling of schemes60755765
S6Purchaser-provider split60756068.75
B3Fee exemption for specific services61756577.5
F6Global fund for UHC64756767.5
S1Expansion of package of services6476.256875
B4Mandatory health insurance67756870
S3Strengthen supply of quality primary health care79907873.75
  • Abbreviations: B, barriers; F, funding; S, supply; UHC, universal health coverage.

  • a Degree of consensus measured through 100 (total consensus) minus the interquartile range of individual scores.