Common UHC Policy Options Selected for the Delphi Survey

UHC DimensionPolicy Options
Diminish financial barriers to accessB1 Fee exemptions for children and pregnant women
B2 Fee exemptions for the poorest
B3 Fee exemptions for priority services (e.g., cesarean deliveries, malaria, HIV)
B4 Mandatory health insurance with subsidization of the poor
B5 Voluntary community-based health insurance
B6 Vouchers for the poor
Improve health care fundingF1 Ring-fenced domestic health budgets
F2 Innovative financing for health (e.g., sin tax, bonds)
F3 Pooling and defragmentation of existing financing mechanisms
F4 Reducing inefficiencies and wastage
F5 Performance-based aid funding
F6 Creation of a global UHC fund
Improve the supply and management of servicesS1 Start with a package of essential services for the whole population and progressively expand the package (“universalist” approach)
S2 Start with a full package of services for some categories of population or geographic areas, and progressively extend UHC coverage to other types of populations or areas (“sequenced” approach)
S3 Strengthen the supply of quality primary health care services
S4 Develop public-private partnerships
S5 Results- or performance-based payment of providers
S6 Separate provider and purchaser functions through creation of autonomous health services or agencies
  • Abbreviations: B, barriers; F, funding; S, supply; UHC, universal health coverage.