Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practicesa Related to Prevention of VL Among Intervention and Control Households, Bihar and Jharkhand States of India, 2016

Intervention(%) (N=700)Control(%) (N=350)OR95% CIP Value
What causes VL?
Insects3.64.90.8(0.21, 3.04).73
Mosquitos20.363.10.1(0.08, 0.28)<.001
Sand fly68.47.428.2(11.76, 67.77)<.001
Other3.31.71.5(0.25, 9.27).65
Don't know4.322.90.1(0.05, 0.42)<.001
Is VL contagious and spread by touching?
Yes21.023.40.9(0.46, 1.74).73
No66.744.62.5(1.41, 4.40)<.001
Don't know12.332.00.3(0.14, 0.60)<.001
What are the symptoms of VL?
Fever >2 weeks25.410.53.0(1.36, 6.64).01
Loss of appetite15.57.12.5(0.99, 6.45).05
Enlargement of spleen14.85.52.8(1.03, 7.45).04
Weakness and anemia11.44.23.0(0.91, 9.66).07
Don't know29.468.10.2(0.11, 0.35)<.001
Do you know IRS prevents VL?
Yes82.341.76.3(3.29, 12.01)<.001
No7.419.70.3(0.12, 0.75).01
Don't know10.338.30.2(0.08, 0.39)<.001
What is effective treatment of VL?
Local/traditional treatment6.412.60.4(0.15, 1.17).10
Malarial medicine8.114.60.5(0.19, 1.22).13
1-day medicine that is given in government hospital64.713.112.4(6.09, 25.36)<.001
No need for medicine0.60.03.0(0.12, 75.28).50
Other1.67.70.2(0.05, 1.13).07
Don't know18.452.00.2(0.11, 0.39)<.001
Do you know that complete treatment of VL is available?
Yes88.362.04.5(2.17, 9.29)<.001
No3.914.00.3(0.08, 0.81).02
Don't know7.924.00.3(0.12, 0.65)<.001
Do you know that complete treatment of VL is free?
Yes81.039.16.7(3.51, 12.66)<.001
No6.926.90.2(0.08, 0.49)<.001
Don't know12.034.00.3(0.13, 0.55)<.001
When to treat a patient with VL?
Immediately38.020.32.5(1.31, 4.63).01
Within 1 week11.35.71.9(0.68, 5.46).21
Within 2 weeks22.66.04.7(1.81, 12.07)<.001
When the patient has a fever10.412.60.7(0.31, 1.78).51
Other1.73.40.7(0.11, 4.04).65
Don't know16.051.40.2(0.09, 0.36)<.001
To whom do you advise patients with VL symptoms to go for diagnosis and treatment?
PHC77.039.45.2(2.83, 9.69)<.001
Private doctor7.327.10.2(0.08, 0.49)<.001
RMP/Quack1.16.30.1(0.01, 1.04).05
Traditional healer0.40.31.0(0.02, 50.89)1.00
Other1.32.30.5(0.04, 5.55).57
Don't know12.924.60.4(0.21, 0.94).03
Will you motivate/help community members to accept IRS?
Yes78.644.64.6(2.47, 8.56)<.001
No14.931.10.4(0.19, 0.79).01
Don't know6.624.30.2(0.09, 0.58)<.001
Will you help community members to identify suspected cases of VL?
Yes72.330.95.7(3.11, 10.52)<.001
No18.444.30.3(0.15, 0.53)<.001
Don't know9.124.90.3(0.13, 0.67)<.001
Did you allow spraying of SP last timec in your house?
Yes, all rooms77.354.62.7(1.49, 5.04)<.001
Yes, partially16.327.40.5(0.26, 1.03).06
No1.14.00.2(0.03, 2.21).21
My house was locked1.92.90.7(0.11, 4.04).65
Unaware about day of IRS3.411.10.3(0.06, 0.93).04
  • Abbreviations: ANM, auxillary nurse-midwife; ASHA, Accredited Social Health Activist; AWW, Anganwadi Worker; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; PHC, primary health center; PKDL, post-Kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis; RMP, registered medical practitioner; SP, synthetic pyrethroid; VL, visceral leishmaniasis.

  • a Respondents were asked open-ended questions and their first response was recorded.

  • b Correct answers are shown in italics.

  • c Refers to the first IRS round.