Household Demographics in Intervention and Comparison Areas at Endline, October–December 2015

Intervention (N=3,455)aComparison (N=2,122)a
Age, months, mean16.316.8
Female, %46.347.6
Low birth weight (<2.5 kg), %21.521.3
Education, %
    Illiterate, primary, informal20.121.2
    Secondary (grades 5–10)56.757.7
    Higher secondary and above (grade 11  and above)23.221.0
Not employed, %93.894.9
Body mass index, mean22.822.3**
Place of birth, %
    South India7.72.4***
    North and Central India17.529.2
    East and Northeast India12.05.1
    West India14.525.9
Age at marriage, mean20.319.9*
Years of residence in Mumbai, %
    Less than 1 year1.51.6
    1–5 years6.45.0
    6 or more years92.193.3
Treatment of drinking water,b %32.932.1
PPI: Likelihood below US$2.16/day/PPP line, %71.473.7**
Private toilet, %20.415.8
Food insecurity,c %21.718.1*
Religion, %
  • Abbreviations: PPI, Progress out of Poverty Index; PPP, purchasing power parity.

  • Pearson chi-square for categorical variables and t tests for means.

  • * P≤.05; ** P≤.01; *** P≤.001.

  • a Total sample sizes may vary due to missing values generated from data cleaning.

  • b Treatment of drinking water includes chlorine, use of filter, solar disinfection, and boiling.

  • c Question: “In the last month did you worry that your household would not have enough food?”