Exposure to the VL Messages Among Intervention and Control Households, Bihar and Jharkhand States of India, 2016

Intervention (%) (N=700)Control (%) (N=350)OR95% CIP Value
Have heard/seen anything about VL in the last 12 months?68.721.18.4(4.41, 15.90)<.001
Where did you hear/see anything about VL?a
Radio0.30.70.3(0.01, 8.20).50
TV6.41.36.3(0.75, 53.48).09
Newspaper0.50.71.0(0.06, 16.21)1.00
Poster10.50.912.2(1.55, 96.68).02
Health meeting at PHC0.20.41.0(0.02, 50.89)1.00
Community meeting2.90.47.2(0.37, 141.53).19
Religious place/religious leaders0.30.01.0(0.02, 50.89)1.00
Community leaders0.00.11.0(0.02, 50.89)1.00
Friends/neighbor1.91.42.0(0.18, 22.65).57
Miking/drum beating6.54.41.5(0.42, 5.60).52
ASHA, ANM, AWW, or other health staff3.52.11.5(0.25, 9.27).65
Door-to-door meeting5.70.013.8(0.77, 248.81).07
Other0.00.41.0(0.02, 50.89)1.00
BCC project activities24.50.367.9(4.02, 113.00)<.001
Don't know/not heard or seen36.887.00.1(0.04, 0.18)<.001
Did you get prior information about IRS of your house?b
Yes66.930.34.7(2.61, 8.61)<.001
No25.351.40.3(0.18, 0.58)<.001
Don't know7.918.30.4(0.16, 0.96).04
  • Abbreviations: ANM, auxillary nurse-midwife; ASHA, Accredited Social Health Activist; AWW, Agaanwadi Worker; BCC, behavior change communication; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; PHC, primary health center; PKDL, post-Kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis; VL, visceral leishmaniasis.

  • a Respondents were asked open-ended questions and their first response was recorded.

  • b Refers to information through miking on the day of or before the IRS spray to announce arrival of the spray team. In intervention villages, miking was conducted by the BCC project, whereas in control villages it was conducted by the government.