Magnitude of Effect on Repeat Pregnancy or Birth Among High-Quality Evaluations Measuring Similar Outcomes at Similar Time Periodsa (n=6)

EvaluationIntervention DescriptionOutcome Measured During Postpartum PeriodRepeat Pregnancy RatesP Value
Higher Magnitude of Effect
Sullivan 199218Health care model delivered at teen baby clinic for teen mothers, including social workers, pediatrician, and referral for contraceptive service provision; focused on prevention of repeat pregnancy, return to school, immunizations, and reduced use of emergency room.Pregnancy <18 months12%28%<.003
Black 200619Postpartum home-visitation mentoring intervention; curriculum delivered every other week until infant's first birthday by women from community who served as mentors.Birth <24 months11%24%<.05
Martin 201121Training for adolescents in “implementation intention formation” (if-then planning) in relation to use of contraceptives.Pregnancy <24 months7%12%<.02
Lower Magnitude of Effect
Katz 201123Intensive cell phone counseling intervention to prevent subsequent teen pregnancies by strengthening healthy relationships, reproductive practices, positive youth assets, and teen's own goals and needs.Pregnancy <24 months26%b39%b<.01
Olds 200224Nurse home-visitation intervention to improve health behaviors, prevent rapid repeat pregnancies, improve parent care of children, and maternal life-course development.Pregnancy <24 months29%41%<.02
Kitzman 199725Home visitation by nurses to improve newborn and child health and mental development, and to prevent injuries and rapid repeat pregnancies.Pregnancy <24 months36%47%<.006
  • a All 6 evaluations were randomized controlled trials and reported statistically significant impact of the intervention on rapid repeat pregnancy or birth rates. All were conducted in the United States, except Martin (2011),21 which was conducted in the United Kingdom.

  • b Among mothers ages 15–17 years.