TABLE 4. Methods of Identifying the Poor
MethodIdeal Condition to UseDrawbacks
Means testingWhen cost is not a considerationVery expensive
Proximal means testingLow-poverty incidence in urban areasExpensive, measures relative poverty
Geographic targetingHigh-poverty incidence in both urban and rural areasCould lead to the non-poor who live in poor neighborhoods being exempted from premium
Community wealth rankingLow-poverty incidence in rural communitiesMeasures relative poverty, cannot be used where community ties are weak
  • Adapted from Umeh CA (2017).81