TABLE 2.

Instruments to Measure Primary and Secondary Outcomes of the School-Based Positive Youth and Child Development Program, Hyderabad, Pakistan

Scale/AssessmentCharacteristicsAlpha for Present Study
School Victimization and Perpetration
Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale2216-item measure with 4 subscales assessing physical and verbal victimization, social manipulation, and property attacks.
Point values are assigned to responses: never=0; once=1; a few times=2; many times=3. Scale scores summed to a possible range of 0 to 48.
  • Peer victimization overall=0.873

  • Physical=0.673

  • Verbal=0.642

  • Social manipulate=0.696

  • Property attacks=0.658

Peer Perpetration Scale2216-item measure with 4 subscales assessing physical and verbal perpetration, social manipulation, and property attacks.
Point values are assigned to responses: never=0; once=1; a few times=2; many times=3. Scale scores summed to a possible range of 0 to 48.
  • Peer perpetration overall=0.890

  • Physical=0.733

  • Verbal=0.696

  • Social manipulate=0.723

  • Property attacks=0.716

Location and Impact of Victimization
Peer Victimization Location and Perpetrator Characteristics Scale6 items on frequency of victimization in locations, i.e., inside or outside of school.
3 items on characteristics of perpetrator, i.e., older or more powerful.
Point values are assigned to responses: never=0; once=1; a few times=2; many times=3.
These items were not considered a subscale and alpha was not calculated.
Peer Victimization Impact6 items on frequency of impact of peer victimization, i.e. feeling sick, not able to study.
Point values are assigned to responses: never=0; once=1; a few times=2; many times=3. Scale scores summed to a possible range of 0 to 18 for impact of victimization.
Impact of victimization=0.603
Child Mental Health
Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2) 2328-item self-report questionnaire to assess the severity of current or recent (last 2 weeks) depressive symptoms.
Response options are rated on a 3-point scale as: 0=no symptom; 1=mild symptom; 2=definite symptom. Scale scores range from 0 to 56.
Alpha=0.725
Investigator-Derived Questions
Corporal Punishment at School6 items on the frequency (i.e., never, once, 2–3 times, or 4 or more times) the youth was punished by a teacher (i.e., slapped, hit or beaten, made to run, kneel or stand).
Scale scores range from 0 to 24.
Alpha=0.758
Parent Fighting3 items on frequency (i.e., never, once, 2–3 times, or 4 or more times) child witnessed parent fighting, including father violence against the mother, father violence against other adults, mother violence against other family members.These items were not considered a subscale and alpha was not calculated.
Child Attitudes Toward Child Punishment5 items that assess child agreement (i.e., strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree) with events that deserve child punishment, such as disobeying parents and misbehaving at school.
Scale scores range from 0 to 15.
Alpha=0.653
Child Attitudes Toward Gender Norms and Women's Participation13 items that assesses child agreement (i.e., strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree) with gender norms, such as girls going to school, wives obeying husbands, husbands' right to punish wives, and women's participation in social events and employment.
Scale scores range from 0 to 39.
Alpha=0.738
Child Physical Punishment at Home2 items to assess parental physical punishment frequency (i.e., never, once, 2–3 times, 4 or more times) and severity to the child at home.Due to only 2 items, coefficient alpha was not determined.
Family Life9 items that assess food security, parent literacy, and home assets, such as electricity and water.Due to many of the items having a dissimilar metric and dichotomous responses, coefficient alpha was not determined.
Early Marriage3 items that assess if the child has been promised in marriage and age of marriage of older siblings.Due to only 2 items having a similar metric, coefficient alpha was not determined.
Child School Performance7 items that assess academic performance (i.e., below average, average, above average), number of absences from school, and reasons for absences.Alpha=0.642, for the 4 academic performance items that had a similar metric.