Model 1 | Model 2 | Model 3 | Model 4 | Model 5 | Model 6 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Empty Model | Individual-Level Variables | Community-Level Variables | Individual and Community-Level Variables | Individual and Community-Level Variables | Individual and Community-Level Variables | |

Fixed parts | fixed slope | fixed slope | random slope | |||

Predictor, OR (95% CI) | ||||||

Intercept | 0.13 (0.08, 0.22) | 0.48 (0.18, 1.28) | 0.19 (0.09, 0.41) | 0.47 (0.18, 1.25) | 0.60 (0.20, 1.77) | 0.36 (0.17, 1.23) |

Time | 0.81 (0.73, 0.91) | 0.81 (0.73, 0.91) | 0.84 (0.75, 0.94) | 0.67 (0.55, 0.81) | 0.67 (0.55, 0.82) | 0.67 (0.5, 0.81) |

Study, improved latrine | 0.48 (0.27, 0.83) | 0.60 (0.33, 1.07) | 0.60 (0.33, 1.08) | 0.40 (0.15, 1.13) | ||

Improved water | 0.88 (0.55, 1.41) | 0.87 (0.54, 1.40) | 0.95 (0.58, 1.56) | 0.85 (0.52, 1.38) | ||

Handwashing | 1.03 (0.63, 1.69) | 1.05 (0.64, 1.72) | 1.11 (0.64, 1.91) | 1.06 (0.63, 1.75) | ||

Child’s sex | 1.41 (0.89, 2.25) | 1.44 (0.90, 2.29) | 1.45 (0.91, 2.31) | 1.47 (0.91, 2.36) | ||

Child’s age | 0.97 (0.96, 0.99) | 0.97 (0.96, 0.99) | 0.97 (0.96, 0.99) | 0.97 (0.96, 0.99) | ||

Coverage of study-improved latrines | 0.43 (0.19, 0.98) | 0.43 (0.19, 0.97) | 0.43 (0.19, 0.98) | 0.38 (0.16, 0.94) | ||

Coverage of improved water | - | 0.67 (0.31, 1.42) | - | - | ||

Coverage of handwashing | - | 0.90 (0.46, 1.75) | - | - | ||

Random parts | ||||||

Cluster-level variance | 0.86 (0.15) | 0.82 (0.14) | 0.79 (0.14) | 0.79 (0.14) | 0.80 (0.14) | 0.80 (0.14) |

Individual-level variance | 1.16 (0.16) | 1.06 (0.16) | 1.18 (0.16) | 1.07 (0.16) | 1.07 (0.16) | 1.12 (0.17) |

ICC-VPC | 0.18 (ICC) | 0.17 (ICC) | 0.16 (VPC) | 0.43 (VPC) | 0.43 (VPC) | 0.42 (VPC) |

Explained variation | Ref (cluster) | 4.7% | 8.1% | 9.3% | 7.0% | 7.0% |

(i.e., PCV in %) proportional change in variance by the new model | Ref (individual) | 8.6% | - | 8.6% | 7.8% | 3.8% |

Deviance^{a} | 1667.4 | 1644.6 | 1657.5 | 1639.1 | 1640.3 | 1635.1 |

Model fit test results,^{b} chi-square (P-value) | - | 22.81 (P<.001) | - | 5.52 (P=.14) | 4.28 (P=.04) | 5.22 (P=.02) |

MOR | 2.26 | 2.18 | 2.12 | 2.12 | 2.17 | 2.14 |

IOR upper, lower | 6.42, 0.37 | 6.42, 0.37 | 6.54, 0.36 | 6.22, 0.34 |

Abbreviations: ICC, intra-cluster correlation; IOR, interval odds ratio; MOR, median odds ratio; PCV, proportional change in variance; VPC, variance partition coefficient.

^{a}The deviance: –2 × LN (likelihood), where likelihood is the value of the likelihood function at convergence, and LN is the natural logarithm.^{b}The likelihood ratio test (Model 4 of lower deviance was compared with Model 2 of larger value, which was not significantly different (*P*=.14). Model 5 of lower deviance was compared with Model 2 of larger deviance, which was significantly different (*P*=.04). Model 6 has the lowest value of deviance was compared with Model 5, which was significantly different (*P*=.02). Hence, we finally selected Model 6.