TABLE 2 Changes in Caregiver Diarrhea Management Practices in Ghana Between Baseline (2012) and Follow-Up (2014) (N = 1,505)
(A) Bivariate Regression Results(B) Multivariate Regression Resultsa
TreatmentBaseline (β0)Follow-Up (β0 + δ0)Difference Over Time (δ0)P ValueFollow-Up (β0 + δ0)Difference Over Time (δ0)P Value
(1) Zinc (with or without ORS)0.0130.3130.300***<.0010.3210.308***<.001
(2) ORS (with or without zinc)0.3770.5990.222***<.0010.6110.234***<.001
(3) ORS with zinc0.0080.2920.284***<.0010.3010.293***<.001
(4) Antibiotics0.6620.382-0.280***<.0010.350-0.312***<.001
(5) Antidiarrheals0.1020.051-0.051**.020.074-0.028.13
  • Abbreviation: ORS, oral rehydration salts.

  • *** P< .01,

  • ** P< .05,

  • * P< .10.

  • a Covariates included in multivariate regressions are caregiver characteristics (sex, age, education, marital status), child age, diarrhea characteristics (duration in days, presence of fever, presence of blood), household characteristics (wealth index score, wealth quintile), and district fixed effects.